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clause clause

Clause is group of words which should have at least a subject and main verb sometimes give complete sense and sometimes incomplete sense.  Clause has two main kinds.

  1. Dependent clause (sub-ordinate clause)
  2. Independent clause( Main clause)

For better understanding and fluent English speaking you must be knowing these clause and its kinds. English language has got many tenses and structures. Such as Clause, phrase and sentence. These structures have got somehow same definitions.

 A phrase is a group of words without subject and verb.

Sentence is group of words which gives correct and clear meaning. Same as clause is also having similar definition which we study below.

What is clause?


A clause is a group of word which should have at least subject and a main verb, sometimes it gives complete meaning/sense and sometimes it does not give complete meaning/sense.

For instance:

  • He is the boy who is a student
  • She is the girl who got 1st position.

In these two sentences “who is a student” and “who got 1st position” are incomplete they need another main clause to complete the meaning of the sentence.

Such as:

A clause can be a sentence but a sentence cannot be a clause. In this phenomena you must understand that a clause is part of a sentence and a sentence is not part of a clause but independent clause. Which itself is a complete sentence.

You must be thinking what the above statement mean. Actually there are two kinds of clauses. Such as dependent clause and independent clause.

1.Independent clause:

It is a clause which alone gives complete and clear sense, it stand alone. An independent clause is called main clause also.


  •  He is a good boy.
  • They are intelligent students.
  • We live in Quetta city.

2. Dependent clause:

it is a clause which depends on other independent clause (main clause). Alone it does not give complete and clear sense.

  •  I learnt
  •  What she said.
  • They got.

∇   What I learnt,              he taught to us today.

∇   I did not get               what she said.
More examples:

  1. The things we brought today they got.
  2. There are many places that she visits.
  3. I know many grammars that you don’t know.
  4. India is the most beautiful country where she lives.
  5. They played many games which watched online.

Kinds of clauses

There are two main kinds of clause.

  1. Independent clause (Main clause)
  2. Dependent clause    (Sub-ordinate clause)
  1. Independent clause:

A clause which gives complete and clear sense is called independent clause. We call it main clause also. It does not need any other clause to stand, it stands alone and gives complete sense.

For instance:

  • I went to school yesterday.
  • They brought me a letter.
  • She gave her a paper.
  • We invited him to the party.
  • He could solve the question.
  1. Dependent clause:

                                  It is a clause which does not give complete and clear sense. It cannot stand alone it needs another main clause to complete the meaning of the sentence.

For instance:

  • I went to school yesterday when she was sleeping.
  • They bought me a letter which I need.
  • She gave her a paper that was really tough.
  • We invited him to the party when she was not at home.
  • He could solve the question which I made.

Kinds of independent and dependent clause.

1.Independent clause 

  1. Declarative Sentence
  2. Imperative Sentence
  3. Interrogative Sentence
  4. Exclamatory Sentence

2.Dependent Clause 

  • Relative clause
  •  Noun clause
  • Adverb clause

Relative Clause (with examples)

What is relative clause?

 It is a clause which gives additional information to main clause (preceding noun). We call it adjective clause also because it functions as adjectives.


  • English, which is international language, is my favorite.
  • I went to school when I was 10 years.
  • Kamran is a man who can explain it well.
  • They are the groups which could win the competition.
  • Relative, which is really interesting, is called adjective clause too.

Adjective clauses start with these relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that, or where.

Example: America, which is a powerful, is the richest country.

Sentences can be combined into one sentence using adjective clauses in a variety of ways, and they are all correct. Read the following sentences.

   She is young.

   I got married with.

  • The girl whom I married with, is young.
  • The girl, with whom I married, is young.
  • She is the girl whom I married.
  • She is the girl who married me.

The main Relative Pronouns:

Who: used for humans in subject position.
Whom: used for humans in object position.
Which: used for things and animals in subject or object position.
That: used for humans, animals and things, in subject or object position.

The main kinds of Relative Clause:

  1. Defining relative Clauses:

It gives essential information about the noun.

The book that I read this morning is on the desk.
(We need this information in order to understand the sentence. Without the relative clause, we don’t know which book is mentioned. Note that that is often used in defining relative clauses, and they are not separated by commas.)

  1. Non-defining relative Clauses:

it is a clause which gives extra information about the noun, but they are not essential.
Example: The bag in the corner, which is covered in sheet, is mine.
(We don’t need this information in order to understand the sentence. “The book in the corner is mine” is a good sentence on its own — we still know which book is mentioned. Note that non-defining clauses are usually separated by commas, and that is not usually used in this kind of context.)

  1. Connective relative Clauses: (with formal writing mostly)

This clause is different from the first two clauses. This is both in defining and non-defining. (The matter is preposition)
Example:   I knew the man to whom I talked.
His car, in which he drove so many km, was totally damaged.

  1. Contact relative Clauses: (mostly in spoken, a little informal)

This is also both in defining and non-defining. (Also the matter is preposition)
Example:   I knew the man who I talked to.
His car, which he drove so many km in, was totally damage.

Subjective and objective case of relative clause(Relative Pronoun)

There are two main cases of relative clause which are mostly confusing for students.

  1. Subjective case
  2. Objective case.

    1.Subjective case:

It is really the matter of relative pronoun. Specially The relative pronoun “who” This pronoun is used as subjective case and objective case. So when relative pronoun who functions as the subject of a clause is called subjective case.  For more clearance If verb comes after relative pronoun who that is called subjective case

For example:

  • I know the man who got 1st position.   
  1. In the above sentence ‘who got 1st position” is relative clause and in this clause who is used as the subject of the clause.
  2. In the above sentence ‘who got 1st position’ is a relative clause and in this clause the verb has come after the relative pronoun ‘who’ which is called subjective case. So when ever verb is used after relative pronoun who that clause is called subjective case.

    2. Objective case:

When the relative pronoun who is used as the object of dependent clause is called objective clause. Or in more simple words. When relative pronoun is followed by noun and pronoun is called objective case.

For example:

  • I know the man who I met yesterday.

In the above sentence ‘who I met yesterday’ is relative clause and in this clause the relative pronoun ‘who’ is followed by pronoun ‘I’ which is called objective case.


Adverbs are words which are used to give more information about Verb, Adjective and another Adverb.
They add description to the sentence to make it more detailed and interesting.


  1. He walked slowly across the road.
  2. The girl is very pretty.
  3. F-16 moves very fast.
  4. He sings very well.
  5. They fought dangerously.

Adverb Clauses

Adverb Clause is one of the kind of dependent clause. Which works like adverb as I have explain above. Adverb clause has 4 kinds.

  1. Adverb clause of purpose.
  2. Adverb clauses of Reason
  3. Adverb clauses of Result
  4. Adverb clause of contrast.

1.Adverb Clause of Purpose:


Adverb clause of purpose expresses the purpose or aim of the main clause.


  • We have to eat so that we may live.
    Here the Adverb-Clause ‘so that we can live’ is the purpose for which we eat.
    That means the verb ‘eat’ is demonstrate the purpose.
    Adverb clause of purpose is introduced by subordinate conjunctions as:


  • We eat that we may live.
  • She studies hard that she should get first position.

 In order that:

  • She works hard in order to have bright future.
  • He wrote a letter in order to give her.

So that:

  • I studied hard so that I may win the scholarship.
  • Kamran played very well so that he must be awarded.


  • We learn English lest we should be unable to communicate with others.
  • I will go to bazar lest I should bring gift.

Lest means that…not, and, therefore, it will be wrong to add another not in the following clause. Moreover it should be noted that the only auxiliary verb that can be used after lest is should.

Note: These expressions are usually followed by modal auxiliary verbs such as will, can or may.

She wants to study in England so that she can perfect her English.

We are starting now so that we will reach there before sunset.


    1. Sleep well lest you will not write your exam very well.
    2. He was extra polite to his superiors lest something adverse should be written into his records.
    3. He was invited to the function in order to show him how wonderfully this function has been organized.
    4. Let us go now ourselves so that we can catch the train.
    5. He drew the sword so that he could defend himself.
  1. Come here so that I could bless you.

Adverb clauses of Reason

Definition: These kinds of Adverb clauses indicate the reason of an action.

Note: You must know that adverb clauses are introduced by Sub-ordinate Conjunctions. In this article we will study about the reason of an action that why an action takes place, what is the reason? So, in order not to get confused you should better have a look on adverb clause of purpose and adverb clause of result. These two clauses are also similar to each other.

Adverb Clauses of Reason are introduced by the following Conjunctions:

  1. Because
  2. Since
  3. As
  4. That

These are the sub ordinate conjunctions which are used to make reason clauses. One thing which is really necessary should be kept in mind that while we use these conjunction it should not contain comma, and if the adverb clause is used is used at the beginning of the sentence than a comma is used between them.


  • I couldn’t feel angry against him because I like him too much.
  • Since he is a nice guy, he should be treated nicely.
  • He can overcome as he is talented.
  • I am glad that you are the winner.

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