Conditional sentences

Conditional sentence: Sentence with if clause and result clause is called conditional sentence.

All the conditional sentences are based on the following rules.

1: conditional sentences have two clauses, if and result clause.

2: for separating the two clauses use comma in the condition sentence. When if clause is used at the beginning of the sentence then comma comes between them, but if result clause comes at the beginning of the sentence then remove the comma.


  • If I play well, I will surely win the match.
  • I will surely win the match if I play well.

3:  if and result clauses can be changed into negative and interrogative form in the condition sentence, and it gives the proper meaning and sense.

There are 5 types of conditional sentences which are given below.

Conditional type 1

Formula:              if + Simple Present, future simple

Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don’t know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.


  •  If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
  • I will climb the roof if I could find the ladder.
  • I will pass the class if I study hard.
  • They will win the match if they struggle hard.
  • If she sing song, I will dance.

I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it.


  • If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferrari. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.

Conditional type 2 (Present unreal)

Formula:                     if + Simple Past, would+ 1st verb.

Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don’t really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine „what would happen if …“



  • If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.


More Examples :

  •   If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.
  •   I would climb the roof if found the ladder.
  •  They would win the match if they struggled hard. 
  •  If she sang a song, I would dance 
  • If you did not drink wine, we would not be punished

Conditional type 3

Formula:                   if + past perfect, would have+ 3rd form of the verb.

Conditional Sentences Type III refers to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.


  •     If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn’t find her address, however. So in the end I didn’t send her an invitation.


  • If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferrari. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.

Zero conditional

The Zero Conditional is used for actions that are always true when the conditions are satisfied.


  • If you put sugar in coffee, it tastes sweet.

Formula:       If + Present Simple, + Present Simple

Mixed Conditional

Unreal conditionals (type II + III) sometimes can be mixed, that is, the time of the if clause is different from the one of the main clause.


          if + past perfect, would + 1st form of the verb.

  • if I had accepted the job, I would be the millionaire now.


  • If I had taken an aspirin, I wouldn’t have a headache now.


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