Kinds and Categories of Nouns

  1. Common Noun…………………………………pen, country, boy…
  2. Proper Noun……………………………………Mohammad Ali, Kabul…(capitalization occurs)
  3. Collective Noun………………………………..team, flock, group…
  4. Material Noun………………………………….wood, metal, iron, plastic…
  5. Concrete Noun…………………………………car, building, table…
  6. Abstract Noun………………………………….Beauty, honesty, fear…
  7. Compound Noun……………………………….a science book, a human being…
  8. Gender Noun……………………………………man, woman, uncle, aunt…

Common Noun:

A common noun is a noun which is used for the name of common things, animals and places.

(common here means shared by all).

e.g.          America is a beautiful country.

Everyone likes flower.

These nouns always start with small letters unless they are located at the very first part of the sentence.

Proper Noun:

The names of some particular people, places, things, or animals are called proper nouns (proper means one’s own).

e.g.          Ibne Sina was a wise man.

Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan.

These nouns always begin with capital letters.

Material Noun:

The names of different things of which something is made are called material nouns.

e.g.          Building blocks are made of clay.

I have a pen which is made of gold.

Concrete Noun:

The names of things that can be touched, seen or felt are called concrete nouns.

e.g.          I have a car.

Abstract Noun:

An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state. (These nouns cannot be touched but understood by the sense.)

e.g.          Goodness, bravery, wisdom, movement, hatred, youth, poverty, slavery…

Abstract nouns are formed:

  1. From Adjectives: Kindness from kind, honesty from honest…
  2. From verbs: Obedience from obey, growth from grow…
  3. From Common Nouns: Childhood from child, slavery from slave…

Collective Noun:

A collective noun is the name of a number (or collection) of people or things taken together and spoken of as a whole.

e.g.          Army, nation, jury, committee…

The French army was defeated at waterloo. (Army = a collection of soldiers.)

Compound Noun:

A compound noun is formed by the combination of two separate nouns giving one particular meaning. (A compound noun is a fixed expression which is made up of more than one word and functions as a noun.)

e.g.          An ice-cream in heat is fantastic!

Compound Nouns (Formation):

Noun + Noun……………….……address book, science fiction, winter clothes.

Noun + Gerund………………….fruit picking, human being, weight lifting.

Gerund + Noun………………….swimming pool, driving license, studying room.

Gender Noun:

You know that living beings are of either the male or the female sex. They are divided in masculine, feminine, common or neuter Genders. (Gender comes from Latin genus, kind or sort.)

  1. A noun that denotes a male animal is said to be of masculine gender.
  2. A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of the feminine gender.
  3. A common gender denotes to either a male or a female noun; as; parent, monarch.
  4. Neuter gender denotes to a thing that is neither male nor female (i.e. things without life). Neuter means neither, such

as:   book, tree, pen etc…

Main exceptions:  There are some nouns that contain the same form for both masculine and feminine form.

The most common of these nouns are: baby, infant, relative, relation, spouse, child, cousin, teenager & parent.

The feminine can be formed…

 

  1. By adding “-ess” to the masculine By use of different words:

(sometimes with other slight changes):

 

MASCULINE

lad

lord

lover

man

monk

nephew

sir

son

tutor

uncle

wizard

husband

King

FEMININE

lass

lady

mistress

woman

nun

nice

lady, madam

daughter

governess

aunt

witch

wife

Queen

MASCULINE

bachelor

boy

brother

bull

cock

dog

drake

father

fox

friar

gander

gentleman

horse

FEMININE

spinster

girl

sister

cow

hen

bitch

duck

mother

vixen

nun

goose

lady

mare

 

MASCULINE

actor

Baron

Count

Duke

Emperor

giant

heir

host

lion

FEMININE

actress

Baroness

Countess

Duchess

Empress

giantess

heiress

hostess

lioness

MASCULINE

master

murderer

priest

Prince

shepherd

steward

tiger

waiter

manager

FEMININE

mistress

murderess

priestess

Princess

shepherdess

stewardess

tigress

waitress

manageress

 

  1. By prefixing or suffixing a word:

MASCULINE

grandfather

great grandfather

grandson

great grandson

father-in-law

brother-in-law

son-in-law

landlord

FEMININE

grandmother

great grandmother

granddaughter

great granddaughter

mother-in-law

sister-in-law

daughter-in-law

landlady

MASCULINE

manservant

male-cousin

step-father

step-son

Godfather

Godson

fiancé

hero

FEMININE

maidservant

female-cousin

step-mother

step-daughter

Godmother

Goddaughter

fiancée

heroine