Parts of SPEECH
When we speak or write, we use words to express what we are thinking or feeling. The many words which belong to the English language are classified into eight groups known as the parts of speech. There are thousands of words in any language. But not all words have the same job. For example, some words express “action”. Other words express a “thing”. Other words “join” one word to another word. These are the “building blocks” of the language. Think of them like the parts of a house. When we want to build a house, we use concrete to make the foundations or base. We use bricks to make the walls. We use window frames to make the windows, and door frames to make the doorways. And we use cement to join them all together. Each part of the house has its own job. And when we want to build a sentence, we use the different types of word. Each type of word has its own job.
We can categorize English words into 8 basic types or classes. These classes are called “parts of speech”.
In common linguistics, the term part of speech has generally been discarded in favor of the label word or syntactic category.
The eight parts of speech are laid down in the table.
I have a pen. I am a student.
|Peter, pen, Paris, work, love, student, …||Name of everything||Noun|
Peter is a student.
He gets good marks.
|I, you, he, she, they, we, it, …||Replaces a noun||Pronoun|
|Book is a good friend.||a/an, the, some, good, big, red, interesting, well, …||Describes or modifies a noun/pronoun||Adjective|
|We must study English.||(to) be, have, do, like, work, can, study, …||Shows action, state, possession, occurrence||Verb|
|She reads fast. She speaks very well.||Well, badly, very, clearly, fast, really, …||Describes or modifies a verb, adjective or adverb||Adverb|
|We go to center on Friday for discussion.||To, at, after, on, in, under, beside, near, for, …||Links a noun to another word||Preposition|
|I study English and study History||and, but, when, or, though, if, …||Joins words, clauses and sentences||Conjunction|
|Hurrah, I won the lottery!||hurrah, oh, hmm, alas, …||Short emotion of feeling, exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence||Interjection|