The present perfect tense:

In English we have three prefect tenses (1) Present perfect tense (2) Past Perfect tense (3) Future Perfect tense.

So in this article we will study Present Perfect Tense which is really interesting grammar. We often use this grammar in our daily activity.

Present Perfect Tense

Definition:

It talks about an action started in the past and finished just before now but the result is in the present. Or an action started in the past and finished in the past but the result is in the present.

The structure of the present perfect tense is:

  1. Positive structure/ positive formula:

Subject + has/have +3rd form of the verb + object

(E.g.)

I have done my homework.

In this sentence the homework is done in the past but the result is present now which is given to the teacher.

More examples:

  • I have washed my face.
  • She has cleaned the room.
  • You have jumped over the wall.
  • He has read the book.
  • We have driven the car.
  1. Negative structure / negative formula:

Subject + has / have + not + 3rd from of the verb + object/ complement.

  • I have not washed my face.
  • She has not cleaned the room.
  • You have not jumped over the wall.
  • He has not read the book.
  • We have not driven the car.

Note: while change a positive sentence into negative the third from remains same we should not change it to 1st form like other tenses.

  1. Interrogative structure / Interrogative formula:

Has / have + subject +3rd from of the verb +object/complement.

  • Have I washed my face?
  • Has she cleaned the room?
  • Have you jumped over the wall?
  • Has he read the book?
  • Have we driven the car?

Note: Mostly we get confused using present perfect tense because it is used for following activities:

  1. experience
  2. change
  3. continuing situation

1-We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:

  • He has lived in Pakistan.
  • She has gone to Karachi.
  1. We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:
  • I have bought a car.
  • We have made the project.
  • They have designed it.
  1. We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.
  • I have worked here since July.
  • He has been out for 2 days.
  • How long have you known Tara?

We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.

  • We use for to talk about a period of time – 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
  • We use since to talk about a point in past time – 9 o’clock, 1st January, Monday.
  • I have been here for 20 minutes.
  • I have been here since 9 o’clock.

Note:

For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.

 

 

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